Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 14. Epub 2020 Jul 14.
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most dangerous incurable diseases that affects a large number of people worldwide. Artemisia species have various protective activities and are widely used for the control of diabetes in folkloric medicine. Therefore, the current study was designed to illustrate the protective effect of oral administration of Artemisia judaica extract (AjE) against hepatorenal damage in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) rat model of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Animals were divided into five groups-control, AjE, HFD/STZ, HFD/STZ-AjE (300 mg/kg), and HFD/STZ-MET (100 mg/kg)-and treated daily for 28 days. The results revealed that STZ-injected rats showed marked hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in addition to high levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoproteins compared to control rats. Significant elevations in hepatic (AST and ALT) and renal (urea, uric acid, and creatinine) function markers were observed in the serum of diabetic rats. Additionally, STZ injection caused remarkable elevations in lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels as well as suppression of antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione). Marked elevations in TNF-α and Bax levels with a decline in Bcl-2 levels were detected after STZ injection. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression levels were significantly upregulated in the liver and kidney tissues. Rats that received AjE or MET showed significant improvement in most of the aforementioned parameters, and the protective efficacy was higher for AjE than for MET. Histopathological screening confirmed the biochemical findings. Conclusively, our results illustrated the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities of AjE against hepatorenal injury in HFD/STZ-induced diabetes.