Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle Strasse 10, 13092 Berlin, Germany.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) eliminates misfolded or unassembled proteins from the ER. ERAD targets are selected by a quality control system within the ER lumen and are ultimately destroyed by the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The spatial separation between substrate selection and degradation in ERAD requires substrate transport from the ER to the cytoplasm by a process termed dislocation. In this review, we will summarize advances in various aspects of ERAD and discuss new findings on how substrate dislocation is achieved.