Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in vertebrate eye development and disease.

Authors:
A Cvekl K P Mitton

Heredity (Edinb) 2010 Jul 24;105(1):135-51. Epub 2010 Feb 24.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Eukaryotic DNA is organized as a nucleoprotein polymer termed chromatin with nucleosomes serving as its repetitive architectural units. Cellular differentiation is a dynamic process driven by activation and repression of specific sets of genes, partitioning the genome into transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin domains. Chromatin architecture at individual genes/loci may remain stable through cell divisions, from a single mother cell to its progeny during mitosis, and represents an example of epigenetic phenomena. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes caused by mechanisms distinct from the primary DNA sequence. Recent studies have shown a number of links between chromatin structure, gene expression, extracellular signaling, and cellular differentiation during eye development. This review summarizes recent advances in this field, and the relationship between sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors and their roles in recruitment of chromatin remodeling enzymes. In addition, lens and retinal differentiation is accompanied by specific changes in the nucleolar organization, expression of non-coding RNAs, and DNA methylation. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in ocular tissues represent exciting areas of research that have opened new avenues for understanding normal eye development, inherited eye diseases and eye diseases related to aging and the environment.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2010.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228956PMC
July 2010

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

eye development
12
eye diseases
8
regulatory mechanisms
8
cellular differentiation
8
epigenetic regulatory
8
eye
5
chromatin
5
phenomena epigenetics
4
nucleolar organization
4
organization expression
4
epigenetics refers
4
epigenetic phenomena
4
example epigenetic
4
changes caused
4
mechanisms distinct
4
distinct primary
4
primary dna
4
changes nucleolar
4
caused mechanisms
4
heritable changes
4

References

(Supplied by CrossRef)

MR Acharya et al.
Mol Pharmacol 2005

CD Allis et al.
2007

R Ashery-Padan et al.
Curr Opin Cell Biol 2001

TC Badea et al.
Neuron 2009

S Barolo et al.
Genes Dev 2002

A Barski et al.
Cell 2007

EA Bassett et al.
Mol Cell Biol 2007

S Bassnett et al.
Exp Eye Res 2009

BE Bernstein et al.
Cell 2006

JH Boatright et al.
Brain Res 2000

CT Burket et al.
Transgenic Res 2008

Similar Publications