Trends Ecol Evol 2014 Jan 17;29(1):51-63. Epub 2013 Oct 17.
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:
High-throughput sequencing technologies are revolutionizing the life sciences. The past 12 months have seen a burst of genome sequences from non-model organisms, in each case representing a fundamental source of data of significant importance to biological research. This has bearing on several aspects of evolutionary biology, and we are now beginning to see patterns emerging from these studies. These include significant heterogeneity in the rate of recombination that affects adaptive evolution and base composition, the role of population size in adaptive evolution, and the importance of expansion of gene families in lineage-specific adaptation. Moreover, resequencing of population samples (population genomics) has enabled the identification of the genetic basis of critical phenotypes and cast light on the landscape of genomic divergence during speciation.