Neuron 2008 Jun;58(5):681-93
Alzheimer Research Laboratory, Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
Apolipoprotein E is associated with age-related risk for Alzheimer's disease and plays critical roles in Abeta homeostasis. We report that ApoE plays a role in facilitating the proteolytic clearance of soluble Abeta from the brain. The endolytic degradation of Abeta peptides within microglia by neprilysin and related enzymes is dramatically enhanced by ApoE. Similarly, Abeta degradation extracellularly by insulin-degrading enzyme is facilitated by ApoE. The capacity of ApoE to promote Abeta degradation is dependent upon the ApoE isoform and its lipidation status. The enhanced expression of lipidated ApoE, through the activation of liver X receptors, stimulates Abeta degradation. Indeed, aged Tg2576 mice treated with the LXR agonist GW3965 exhibited a dramatic reduction in brain Abeta load. GW3965 treatment also reversed contextual memory deficits. These data demonstrate a mechanism through which ApoE facilitates the clearance of Abeta from the brain and suggest that LXR agonists may represent a novel therapy for AD.