Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 Oct 30;479(4):927-932. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
The objective of this study was to determine the ability of spermine to act as an antioxidant in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining sperm function and decreasing cryocapacitation after cryopreservation. Although motility did not increase with spermine treatment, values for membrane integrity were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Higher percentages of linearity and straightness with a lower amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) indicated that spermine inhibits hyperactivation. Concentrations of intracellular and extracellular ROS were decreased in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Higher expression of an anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl-2) and lower expression of a pro-apoptotic gene (Bax), together with decreased expression of the mitochondrial ROS modulator ROMO1, DNA repair due to oxidative damage (OGG1), spermine synthase (SMS), NADPH oxidase associated with motility (NOX5) and spermine amino oxidase (SMOX), all showed that 5.0 mM spermine treatment was beneficial to spermatozoa. Furthermore, the proportion of live spermatozoa with intact acrosomes after thawing in the treatment group was higher than in the control. After incubation in canine capacitating medium, numbers of live capacitated spermatozoa with reacted acrosomes were higher than in the control. Our results indicate that 5.0 mM spermine is an optimal concentration for maintaining sperm function, reducing ROS production, preventing apoptosis and adverse effects of cryocapacitation during canine sperm cryopreservation.