Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012 Jan 12;18(1):100-5. Epub 2011 Jun 12.
Servei d'hematologia, Institut Català d'Oncologia, Hospital Josep Trueta, Girona, Spain.
CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) plays a pivotal role in inhibiting T cell activation through competitive interaction with B7 molecules and interruption of costimulatory signals mediated by CD28. Polymorphisms on the CTLA-4 gene have been previously associated with autoimmune diseases, predisposition to leukemic relapse, and with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or relapse after allogeneic transplant. As CTLA-4 is expressed on T-lymphocytes, the aim of this study was to determine whether the donor CTLA-4 CT60 genotype also influences clinical outcome even after T cell depletion with CD34-positive selection. We studied 136 patient-donor pairs. Overall survival (OS) was worse for those patients who received grafts from a donor with the CT60 AA genotype rather than from a donor with the AG or GG genotype (35.6% vs 49.4%; P = .043). This association was confirmed through multivariate analysis, which identified the donor CT60 genotype as an independent risk factor for OS (P = .008; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-4.08). The donor CT60 AA genotype was also associated with lower disease-free survival, this being related to an increased risk of relapse (P = .001; HR: 3.41, 95% CI: 1.67-6.96) and a trend toward higher transplant-related mortality. These associations were stronger when considering only patients in the early stage of disease. Our results suggest that graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity after T cell depletion is conditioned by the donor CTLA-4 genotype.