Thioredoxins, glutaredoxins, and glutathionylation: new crosstalks to explore.

Photosynth Res 2006 Sep 7;89(2-3):225-45. Epub 2006 Nov 7.

Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8618, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 630, Orsay Cedex, 91405, France.

Oxidants are widely considered as toxic molecules that cells have to scavenge and detoxify efficiently and continuously. However, emerging evidence suggests that these oxidants can play an important role in redox signaling, mainly through a set of reversible post-translational modifications of thiol residues on proteins. The most studied redox system in photosynthetic organisms is the thioredoxin (TRX) system, involved in the regulation of a growing number of target proteins via thiol/disulfide exchanges. In addition, recent studies suggest that glutaredoxins (GRX) could also play an important role in redox signaling especially by regulating protein glutathionylation, a post-translational modification whose importance begins to be recognized in mammals while much less is known in photosynthetic organisms. This review focuses on oxidants and redox signaling with particular emphasis on recent developments in the study of functions, regulation mechanisms and targets of TRX, GRX and glutathionylation. This review will also present the complex emerging interplay between these three components of redox-signaling networks.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-006-9096-2DOI Listing
September 2006

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