Institute of Reproduction and Stem Cell Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.
CCN1/Cyr61 is a member of the protein family that can be promptly induced by growth factors. CCN1/Cyr61 promotes cell proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation. It plays important roles in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix production. In addition, CCN1/Cyr61 has many potential functions in tumorigenesis, development, embryo implantation, as well as formation of endometriotic lesions. Expression of CCN1/Cyr61 is regulated by a variety of agents including cytokines, growth factors, steroid hormones, and some drugs. These inducers regulate the transcription of CCN1/Cyr61 through several signaling transduction pathways. CCN1/Cyr61 is able to interact either with the cell itself or the surrounding cells through an autocrine-paracrine mechanism. It has been reported that CCN1/Cyr61 exerts its functions via interacting with at least five integrins as well as heparan sulfate proteoglycan. By activating Wnt, NF-kappaB, or tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, CCN1/Cyr61 is not only able to control the growth of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, but also induce or suppress apoptosis in a cell type-specific manner.