J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999 Feb;103(2 Pt 1):321-5
Department of Virology, The Kitasato Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
Am J Dis Child 1993 Aug;147(8):854-7
Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa.
Objective: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of Lederle Laboratories' (Pearl River, NY) diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine when administered simultaneously with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and trivalent oral poliovirus (OPV) vaccine at 15 to 16 months of age.
Design: Randomized and double-blind.
Setting: Two general pediatric practices. Read More
Pediatrics 2002 Dec;110(6):e71
Vaccine Safety and Development Activity, Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
Objective: Anaphylaxis after immunization, although rare, is serious and potentially life-threatening. Understanding risk factors for this reaction is therefore important. Gelatin is added to many vaccines as a heat stabilizer. Read More
Biologicals 2003 Dec;31(4):245-9
Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Tokai University, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara City, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan.
From the early 1990s infants started to receive acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTaP) before live vaccines such as measles, rubella, and mumps vaccines, which contained gelatin as a stabilizer. Then, an increasing number of cases of anaphylactic/allergic reactions to those live vaccines were reported. Almost all these cases had a previous history of receiving three or four doses of DTaP containing gelatin. Read More
Jpn J Infect Dis 2000 Oct;53(5):189-95
Department of Immunology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.
Most of the children who showed systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylactic shock, to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines had IgE antibodies to gelatin; thus we suspected that the allergic symptoms are caused by gelatin antigen, which is usually included in these live-virus vaccines as a stabilizer. We hypothesized that the anti-gelatin IgE is elicited by immunization with DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis) vaccines, which contained a small amount of gelatin as a spillover protein after purification of pertussis toxin. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to determine whether children with anti-gelatin IgE had received gelatin-containing DTaP vaccines, and it was indeed found that all such children in the study had immunization histories that included the gelatin-containing DTaP vaccines. Read More