Br J Urol 1998 Dec;82(6):895-901
Urology Service, Tripler Army Medical Center, Hawaii.
Neurourol Urodyn 2000 ;19(2):195-206; discussion 206-8
Department of Urology, The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.
Partial obstruction of the rat bladder outlet initiates a multi-step process during which the bladder progressively loses its functional ability. The first step in this progression is bladder hypertrophy; the organ dramatically increases in size and weight to compensate for the effects of obstruction. Unoperated female rats, age-matched, sham-obstructed rats, and rats that received a partial bladder outlet obstruction were studied. Read More
BJU Int 2008 Mar 7;101(5):633-9. Epub 2007 Dec 7.
Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
Objective: To investigate changes in acetylcholine release from the bladder of rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), as partial BOO leads to hypertrophy and an alteration in the contractions of the detrusor smooth muscle, and acetylcholine plays an important role in urinary bladder contractions but there is little available information on acetylcholine release after BOO.
Material And Methods: Partial BOO was induced in adult female rats by ligating the proximal urethra over a 1 mm angiocatheter; sham-operated rats served as controls. The rats were killed 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months after induction of BOO. Read More
J Urol 2000 Jun;163(6):1981-7
Department of Urology, University of Texas - Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Introduction: Following prolonged partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the mouse, cholinergic mediated detrusor contractility decreases. Previous work has demonstrated an increase in the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA and protein levels soon after obstruction. Since nitric oxide (NO), the product of the action of iNOS on molecular oxygen and l-arginine, produces vasodilation and decreases platelet aggregation, we believe it is an integral part of the initial detrusor response to obstruction. Read More
J Urol 2002 Mar;167(3):1508-12
Department of Urology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York , USA.
Purpose: Experimental partial bladder outlet obstruction in rats and rabbits drives the bladder through 3 sequential responses, referred to as hypertrophy, compensation and decompensation. The hypertrophy phase, which is a period of rapid bladder growth, has previously been shown to be accompanied by a significant increase in bladder blood flow in rats and rabbits in a manner that likely supports the bladder cell growth process. However, chronic periods of obstruction in the rabbit have been shown to reduce significantly bladder blood flow, especially to the detrusor smooth muscle, corresponding with a loss of bladder contractile function or decompensation in these animals. Read More