Am J Psychiatry 1983 Jun;140(6):740-5
Biopsychosocial eclecticism is incomplete because it does not address the important issues of differential causation and treatment staging. Psychiatric serialism goes beyond eclecticism to consider biological, psychosocial, and existential-moral parameters as equipotential and hierarchical. What this means in practice is that, after forming a treatment alliance, the therapist must always assess the evidence for a biological substrate of disorder and, where feasible, administer the appropriate biological treatments. On a stable biological platform, psychosocial interventions can then be utilized to promote the goals of lieben and arbeiten, and an existential therapy relationship can be forged to promote personal integrity.