Objective: To determine whether full-term neonates with in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) require respiratory support in the delivery room, as indicated by the standardized Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm, significantly more often than nonexposed neonates.Study Design: In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from medical records of full-term neonates with and without in utero SSRI exposure, defined as documentation of third trimester maternal SSRI treatment. A hospital-based sample was identified at Northwestern Medical Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. Full-term singleton newborns identified in a 6-month period (n = 4933) were selected for study. Neonates with a major congenital anomaly were excluded. The primary outcome was initiation of respiratory support in the delivery room, as indicated by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm.Results: Of the 4933 full-term singleton neonates, 3.3% were exposed to SSRI in utero. Respiratory support was initiated significantly more often in SSRI exposed (12.9%) than unexposed (4.2%) neonates (covariate-adjusted OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.40-6.49). In utero SSRI exposure also was associated with a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission (covariate-adjusted OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.30-3.50) and 1-minute Apgar score of ≤5 (covariate-adjusted OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.07-5.67).Conclusions: In this cohort, in utero SSRI exposure was associated with a significantly greater odds of resuscitation in the delivery room as well as neonatal intensive care unit admission. Although the mechanism underlying these associations have not been determined and causality cannot be assumed, these findings support a recommendation that third trimester SSRI exposure be considered a risk factor for needing resuscitation.