Genes (Basel) 2020 Nov 30;11(12). Epub 2020 Nov 30.
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is an X-linked dominant condition characterised by metaphyseal striations, macrocephaly, cleft palate, and developmental delay in affected females. Males have a more severe phenotype with multi-organ malformations, and rarely survive. To date, only frameshift and nonsense variants in exon 2, the single coding exon of , or whole gene deletions have been reported to cause OSCS. In this study, we describe two families with phenotypic features typical of OSCS. Exome sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) did not identify pathogenic variants in . Therefore, genome sequencing was employed which identified two deletions containing the non-coding exon 1 of in the families. These families highlight the importance of considering variants or deletions of upstream non-coding exons in conditions such as OSCS, noting that often such exons are not captured on probe or enrichment-based platforms because of their high G/C content.