Objective: To investigate if there is an association between consanguinity and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the Saudi population.Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted by assessing the prevalence of consanguinity in patients with pathologically proven HS, who underwent epilepsy surgery at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2004 and December 2015. We reviewed the medical records to extract data, which included; age, gender, duration of epilepsy, history of febrile seizure, family history of epilepsy in a first or second-degree relative, and pathology reports. Results: A total of 120 patients, out of which 40 patients (65% male) having mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS, and 80 controls (56% male) with cryptogenic epilepsy, were identified. Twenty-two patients (53.5%) in the HS group had a history of consanguinity. In the control group, 30 patients (37.5%) had a history of consanguinity. The odds ratio was 2.04 (95% confidence interval = 0.94 - 4.4, p=0.052). A family history of epilepsy was found in 28% of the patients with HS and 32.5% cryptogenic epilepsy. Only 8 patients (19.5%) with HS reported a history of febrile seizure.Conclusion: Our retrospective case-control study suggests that consanguinity might increase the likelihood of developing HS.