Trends Parasitol 2021 Feb 17;37(2):130-141. Epub 2020 Oct 17.
Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center of Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
Neglected tropical diseases annually account for several million infections worldwide. Efficacious treatment for these poorly understood infectious diseases is often limited to ineffective, expensive, and toxic therapies such as the SbV used for leishmaniasis patients. Here, we review the latest discoveries and literature on the molecular pathways, cell types, and immune mediators involved in the immune response to infection with New World Leishmania spp. in humans and their interaction with the adaptive and innate immune system. Novel developments in the field of trained innate immunity and the recently described role of IL-32 are emphasized as potential immunotherapeutic treatments for the management of leishmaniasis.