BMC Oral Health 2020 Oct 7;20(1):271. Epub 2020 Oct 7.
CIR Dental School, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
Background: Fully adjustable articulators and pantographs record and reproduce individual mandibular movements. Although these instruments are accurate, they are operator-dependant and time-consuming. Pantographic recording is affected by inter and intra operator variability in the individuation of clinical reference points and afterwards in reading pantographic recording themselves. Finally only border movements can be reproduced.
Methods: Bionic Jaw Motion system is based on two components: a jaw movement analyzer and a robotic device that accurately reproduces recorded movements. The jaw movement analyzer uses an optoelectronic motion system technology made of a high frequency filming camera that acquires 140frames per second and a custom designed software that recognizes and determines the relative distance at each point in time of markers with known geometries connected to each jaw. Circumferential modified retainers connect markers and do not cover any occlusal surfaces neither obstruct occlusion. The recording process takes 5 to 10 s. Mandibular movement performance requires six degrees of freedom of movement, 3 rotations and 3 translations. Other robots are based on the so-called delta mechanics that use several parallel effectors to perform desired movements in order to decompose a complex trajectory into multiple more simple linear movements. However, each parallel effector introduces mechanical inter-component tolerances and mathematical transformations that are required to transform a recorded movement into the combination of movements to be performed by each effector. Bionic Jaw Motion Robot works differently, owing to three motors that perform translational movements and three other motors that perform rotations as a gyroscope. This configuration requires less mechanical components thus reducing mechanical tolerances and production costs. Both the jaw movement analyzer and the robot quantify the movement of the mandible as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom. This represents an additional advantage as no mathematical transformation is needed for the robot to reproduce recorded movements.
Results: Based on the described procedure, Bionic Jaw Motion provide accurate recording and reproduction of maxillomandibular relation in static and dynamic conditions.
Conclusion: This robotic system represents an important advancement compared to available analogical and digital alternatives both in clinical and research contexts for cost reduction, precision and time saving opportunities.