J Nutr 2020 10;150(Suppl 1):2556S-2560S
Reference Center for Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Necker University Hospital, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, University of Paris, Medical School Paris-Descartes, Paris, France.
Lysine is an essential amino acid, and inherited diseases of its metabolism therefore represent defects of lysine catabolism. Although some of these enzyme defects are not well described yet, glutaric aciduria type I (GA1) and antiquitin (2-aminoadipic-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase) deficiency represent the most well-characterized diseases. GA1 is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Untreated patients exhibit early onset macrocephaly and may present a neurological deterioration with regression and movement disorder at the time of a presumably "benign" infection most often during the first year of life. This is associated with a characteristic neuroimaging pattern with frontotemporal atrophy and striatal injuries. Diagnosis relies on the identification of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine along with plasma glutarylcarnitine. Treatment consists of a low-lysine diet aiming at reducing the putatively neurotoxic glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids. Additional therapeutic measures include administration of l-carnitine associated with emergency measures at the time of intercurrent illnesses aiming at preventing brain injury. Early treated (ideally through newborn screening) patients exhibit a favorable long-term neurocognitive outcome, whereas late-treated or untreated patients may present severe neurocognitive irreversible disabilities. Antiquitin deficiency is the most common form of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. α-Aminoadipic acid semialdehyde (AASA) and Δ-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C) accumulate proximal to the enzymatic block. P6C forms a complex with pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), a key vitamer of pyridoxine, thereby reducing PLP bioavailability and subsequently causing epilepsy. Urinary AASA is a biomarker of antiquitin deficiency. Despite seizure control, only 25% of the pyridoxine-treated patients show normal neurodevelopment. Low-lysine diet and arginine supplementation are proposed in some patients with decrease of AASA, but the impact on neurodevelopment is unclear. In summary, GA1 and antiquitin deficiency are the 2 main human defects of lysine catabolism. Both include neurological impairment. Lysine dietary restriction is a key therapy for GA1, whereas its benefits in antiquitin deficiency appear less clear.