J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Aug;70(8):1418-1424
Department of Cardiology, National Defense Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.
Metabesity refers to metabolic aberrations associated with obesity. These include low- grade inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and changes in gut microbiome. Along with a genetic component, the phenotypes in metabesity are largely the result of sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits. Metabesity is associated with several co-morbidities including an increased risk for cardiovascular conditions like hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death. Insulin resistance, high blood pressure and glucose levels, visceral adiposity, progressive atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia and fatty liver are common in obese individuals. Obesity increases the risk for and overall mortality due to cancer. Metabesity adversely impacts endocrine balances in the body and increases the risk of degenerative conditions like dementia. Metabesity is an impending epidemic of huge public health implications with enormous clinical, socioeconomic, and humanistic burden. Interventions to combat sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating should be introduced early in life to prevent the onset and progression of metabesity. This review also summarizes the experts' recommendation from Pakistan to manage the rising metabesity concern in their geography based on the literature evidences.