Molecules 2020 Aug 5;25(16). Epub 2020 Aug 5.
Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Unit, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of head and neck cancer worldwide. Radiation and chemotherapy are general treatments for patients; however, these remedies can have adverse side effects and tumours develop drug resistance. Effective treatments still require improvement for cancer patients. Here, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of (MO) Lam. leaf extracts and their fractions, 3-hydroxy-β-ionone on SCC15 cell line. SCC15 were treated with and without MO leaf extracts and their fractions. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability on SCC15. Cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by the Muse™ Cell Analyser. Colony formation and wound closure analysis of SCC15 were performed in 6-well plates. Apoptosis markers were evaluated by immunoblotting. We found that Moringa extracts and 3-HBI significantly inhibited proliferation of SCC15. Moreover, they induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in SCC15 compared to the untreated control. MO extracts and 3-HBI also inhibited colony formation and cell migration of SCC15. Furthermore, we observed the upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax with downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, indicating the induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that MO extracts and 3-HBI provided anti-cancer properties by inhibiting progression and inducing apoptosis of SCC15.