Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2020 Jul 26:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 26.
Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, Thomas Jefferson University , Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Introduction: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most complex complications following total joint arthroplasty. Despite significant progress in recent years, the use of blood and synovial biomarkers to diagnose PJI remains a challenge.
Areas Covered: A combination of serological, synovial, microbiological, histological, and radiological investigations is suggested by consensus and international guidelines. Novel biomarkers and molecular methods have shown promise in recent years. The purpose of this review is to provide an update about the biomarkers used to diagnose PJI and highlight their sensitivity and specificity. In addition, guidance on the diagnostic steps and clinical workflow will be included.
Expert Opinion: The diagnostic algorithm developed and validated by the international consensus meeting group is still the most valuable resource to approach PJI diagnosis. The current combination of blood and synovial biomarkers yield acceptable results and good performance. However, there is a need for new biomarkers and further research to understand the limitations of current tests better, as well as explore new options such as alpha-defensin, D-dimer, interleukin-6, and leukocyte esterase.