Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2020 Nov;75(11-12):473-478
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), 35900,Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia.
Polyalthia is one of the largest genera in the Annonaceae family, and has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatic fever, gastrointestinal ulcer, and generalized body pain. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the composition of the essential oils of four Polyalthia species (P. sumatrana, P. stenopetalla, P. cauliflora, and P. rumphii) growing in Malaysia. The chemical composition of these essential oils was determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The multivariate analysis was determined using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The results revealed that the studied essential oils are made up principally of bicyclogermacrene (18.8%), cis-calamenene (14.6%) and β-elemene (11.9%) for P. sumatrana; α-cadinol (13.0%) and δ-cadinene (10.2%) for P. stenopetalla; δ-elemene (38.1%) and β-cubebene (33.1%) for P. cauliflora; and finally germacrene D (33.3%) and bicyclogermacrene for P. rumphii. PCA score and HCA plots revealed that the essential oils were classified into three separated clusters of P. cauliflora (Cluster I), P. sumatrana (Cluster II), and P. stenopetalla, and P. rumphii (Cluster III) based on their characteristic chemical compositions. Our findings demonstrate that the essential oil could be useful for the characterization, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic applications of Polyalthia essential oil.