GLI1 and AXIN2 Are Distinctive Markers of Human Calvarial Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Nonsyndromic Craniosynostosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 19;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Dipartimento Scienze della Vita e Sanità Pubblica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy.

All skeletal bones house osteogenic stem cell niches, in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provide progenitors for tissue growth and regeneration. They have been widely studied in long bones formed through endochondral ossification. Limited information is available on the composition of the osteogenic niche in flat bones (i.e., skull vault bones) that develop through direct membranous ossification. Craniosynostosis (CS) is a congenital craniofacial defect due to the excessive and premature ossification of skull vault sutures. This study aimed at analysing the expression of GLI1, AXIN2 and THY1 in the context of the human skull vault, using nonsyndromic forms of CS (NCS) as a model to test their functional implication in the aberrant osteogenic process. The expression of selected markers was studied in NCS patients' calvarial bone specimens, to assess the in vivo location of cells, and in MSC isolated thereof. The marker expression profile was analysed during in vitro osteogenic differentiation to validate the functional implication. Our results show that GLI1 and AXIN2 are expressed in periosteal and endosteal locations within the osteogenic niche of human calvarial bones. Their expression is higher in MSC isolated from calvarial bones than in those isolated from long bones and tends to decrease upon osteogenic commitment and differentiation. In particular, AXIN2 expression was lower in cells isolated from prematurely fused sutures than in those derived from patent sutures of NCS patients. This suggests that AXIN2 could reasonably represent a marker for the stem cell population that undergoes depletion during the premature ossification process occurring in CS.

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2020
Get 20% Off Journals at

Similar Publications

Unusual Complication of a Neglected Growing Skull Fracture.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 Feb 24:1-5. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, CMI Aster Hospital, Bengaluru, India.

Introduction: The growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare complication seen after head injury in infants and young children. It occurs due to a wide skull defect with underlying dural defect and changes in pressure gradients within skull cavity. Neglected cases may develop progressive neurological deficits and complications after second head trauma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Biomimetic Hydrogels Loaded with Nanofibers Mediate Sustained Release of pDNA and Promote In Situ Bone Regeneration.

Macromol Biosci 2021 Feb 24:e2000393. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Engineering Technology Research Center for Sports Assistive Devices of Guangdong, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou, 510630, China.

Polymer hydrogels are generally insufficient biomechanics, strong resistance to cell adhesion, and weak bioactivity which limits their application in bone tissue engineering considerably. In order to develop a bone tissue engineering material with both good mechanical properties, osteogenic and angiogenic activity. Nanofibers carrying DNA plasmid (pNF) are introduced to gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and thiolated chitosan (TCS) system for preparing a novel GelMA/TCS/pNF composite hydrogel with dual network structure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Petrous Apex Cephaloceles: Radiology Features and Surgical Management of a Rare Entity.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Rush Medical College Department of Radiology Department of Neurological Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Objective: To characterize the radiologic findings of petrous apex cephalocele (PAC) in a patient cohort, and report the surgical management for three symptomatic PAC patients and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak via the middle cranial fossa approach.

Study Design: Retrospective case series.

Setting: Academic center. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Fat and Fibrin Glue: Quo Vadis?

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Facultad de Medicina, LINT, Tucumán, Argentina.

Introduction: Up to date, there are few conditions where the nasoseptal flap (NSF) is not considered as a valid option in the reconstructive phase: 1) when the neurosurgeon does not use an endoscopic technique or 2) when the neurosurgeon uses the endoscopic technique, but there is no genuine indication for the mentioned flap. Therefore, the young skull base neurosurgeon is challenged to master other techniques (other than NSF) for the reconstructive phase. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of fat and fibrin glue to prevent postoperative CSF leak in pituitary surgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF