Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 24;17:39. Epub 2020 May 24.
Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, ZhongShan Hospital, Fudan University, 1609 Xietu Road, Shanghai, 200032 China.
Background: Accumulating evidence shows that circulating levels of trimethylamine N-oxide, which is generated from the metabolism of dietary choline, may predict cardiovascular disease among Caucasians. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), one common presentation of cardiovascular disease, is a spectrum of signs and symptoms due to acute decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries. The relationship between the metabolites from choline pathway and ACS remains unclear. We aimed to assess the associations of circulating metabolites from the choline pathway with ACS among a Chinese population, who consume a different dietary pattern than their Western counterparts.
Methods: We recruited 501 participants who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital,Shanghai China between March 2017 and June 2018, including 254 ACS cases and 247 controls. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure circulating concentrations of metabolites in the choline pathway, including betaine, choline, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine N-oxide. A composite metabolite score using a weighted sum of these four metabolites, and the betaine/choline ratio were calculated. Multivariable logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association of metabolites with ACS, with adjustment of age, sex, body mass index, smoking index, history of diseases, and kidney function.
Results: After adjusting for traditional risk factors, per 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in choline was positively associated with the odds of ACS [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.77(1.44-2.18)], and the other metabolites were not associated with ACS at a statistical significance level. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of the metabolite score, those in the highest quartile had higher odds of ACS [OR (95% CI), 3.18(1.85-5.54), < 0.001 for trend]. Per 1-SD increment in metabolite score was positively associated with higher odds of ACS [OR (95% CI), 1.80 (1.37-2.40)], and per 1-SD increment in the betaine/choline ratio was inversely associated with the odds of ACS [OR (95% CI), 0.49 (0.39-0.60)].
Conclusions: Among our Chinese participants, trimethylamine N-oxide was not associated with ACS, while a composite metabolite score of metabolites from the choline pathway was associated with increased odds of ACS. The choline pathway metabolites may be related to the pathophysiology of ACS among Chinese.