Arch Cardiol Mex 2020 ;90(2):122-129
Departamento de Cardiología Intervencionista, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Ciudad de México, México.
Background: Paravalvular leak is a frequent and important complication after surgical valvular replacement that can cause heart failure, hemolytic anemia and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Surgical reoperation has been the standard treatment, but it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Transcatheter closure is a therapeutic alternative. The aim of the present study is to analyze the feasibility and the short and medium-term outcomes of the transcatheter closure of paravalvular leaks.
Methods: Single-centre registry of consecutive patients with post-surgical paravalvular leaks, that underwent transcatheter closure, between January 2006 and December 2016. Efficacy and safety results were analyzed during the procedure and at 6-month follow-up.
Results: 21 paravalvular leaks (15 mitral, 5 aortic and 1 tricuspid) were closure during 20 procedures. In the initial echocardiography 91% of the leaks were severe. The most used device was the Amplatzer Vascular Plug III® in 10 procedures (50%). The 3D transesophageal echocardiography was used in 70% of cases. The device was successfully implanted in 95% of cases, a regurgitation reduction ≥ 1 grade was achieved in 95% of the cases, and the clinical success was 79%. Six month survival was 100%; however, 3 cases required valvular surgery (15%).
Conclusions: Transcatheter closure of paravalvular leaks is a feasible and safe procedure with high rates of technical, echocardiographic and clinical success in the short and medium term. It is an adequate therapeutic alternative, mainly in high surgical risk patients and multiples comorbidities.