Anal Chim Acta 2020 Jun 23;1118:63-72. Epub 2020 Apr 23.
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thanyaburi, Pathum Thani, 12110, Thailand. Electronic address:
The simultaneous detection of free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde in wastewater samples was performed. In this report, we designed and fabricated functionalized paper test strips featuring detection zones that use 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) for the immobilization of chromogenic substrates to detect free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde. After multiple chromogenic reactions, red, blue and purple colors were obtained on the detection zones and analyzed using a smartphone. Under optimum conditions, the paper test strips showed 1.7, 1.8 and 1.7 orders of magnitude for free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde, respectively. This sensitivity is caused by the formation of homogeneous complexes on detection zones resulting from the chromogenic reagents immobilized on the detection zone via APTES. Through this strategy, free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde analysis was achieved within 5 min with detection limits of 0.08, 0.14 and 0.13 mg L, respectively. The developed paper test strip was able to selective detection of free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde even in the presence of common interfering agents therefore, the test strip was highly selective. In a further demonstration, the developed functionalized paper test strip was successfully used for simultaneous detection of free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde in wastewater in the field and exhibited with high precision and accuracy in detecting free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde in wastewater samples. Compared to other methods, this assay was advantageous in terms of its low detection limit, time savings, good stability and highly portable format, which facilitates rapid on-site environmental monitoring with a smartphone.