Immunohorizons 2021 Feb 23;5(2):117-132. Epub 2021 Feb 23.
Lymphocyte Biology Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based methods have revolutionized genome engineering and the study of gene-phenotype relationships. However, modifying cells of the innate immune system, especially macrophages, has been challenging because of cell pathology and low targeting efficiency resulting from nucleic acid activation of intracellular sensors. Likewise, lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system are difficult to modify using CRISPR-enhanced homology-directed repair because of inefficient or toxic delivery of donor templates using transient transfection methods. Read More