Although interest in transgenerational phenomena is constantly growing, little is known about the long-term toxicity of nanoparticles. In this study we investigate the multigenerational effects of graphene oxide (GO) which was given to Acheta domesticus in low doses (0.2, 2 and 20 μg·g of food) for three subsequent generations. We assessed the influence of GO nanoparticles in many contexts, basing on parameters which represented different levels of biological organization: activity of antioxidant enzymes, level of apoptosis, DNA damage, histological analysis, hatching abilities, body mass and body length of insects, as well as their survival rate. The results have shown that exposing insects to nanoparticles over an extended period of time causes surprising intergenerational effects, based on significant differences in the life cycle and reproductive processes, which are not always dose-dependent. The second generation of insects appeared as the most unstable among the parameters that were studied, and did not match trends and patterns in the first and third generation categories. An increase of DNA damage was observed, but only in the third generation. This reduction of genome stability can be perceived as an essential element of adaptation, leading to an increase of genotype variants, which then undergo selection.