J Clin Lab Anal 2020 Apr 13:e23321. Epub 2020 Apr 13.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.
Background: While blood-derived cell-free DNA has been shown to be a candidate biomarker able to provide diagnostic and prognostic insight in cancer patients, little is known regarding the potential application of urine cell-free DNA (ucfDNA) in diagnosis of cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate ucfDNA concentration and integrity index as potential biomarkers for early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods: Urine samples were collected from 35 healthy controls and 55 NSCLC patients at various tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages. Two long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE1) fragments (LINE1-97 and 266 bp) were quantified via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). DNA integrity index was calculated as the ratio of LINE1-266/LINE-97.
Results: LINE1 fragments concentrations of ucfDNA (LINE1-97, 266 bp) were significantly higher in NSCLC patients with stage III/IV than in stage I/II and in healthy controls. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for discriminating patients with stage III/IV from healthy controls had areas under the curves (AUC) of 0.84 and 0.886, respectively. Moreover, ucfDNA integrity LINE1-266/97 was significantly higher in patients with stage III/IV than in stage I/II and in healthy controls. The AUC of ROC curve for discriminating patients with stage III/IV from healthy controls was 0.800. Furthermore, LINE1-266 fragment concentration was significantly higher in lymph node metastasis (LNM)-positive patients relative to LNM-negative patients. The ROC curve for discriminating LNM-positive from LNM-negative patients had an AUC of 0.822.
Conclusion: UcfDNA could serve as a promising biomarker for early detection of NSCLC.