Mol Genet Genomics 2020 Jul 3;295(4):923-931. Epub 2020 Apr 3.
Center of Excellence for Medical Genomics, Medical Genomics Cluster, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.
Amelogenesis imperfecta type IG (AI1G) is caused by mutations in FAM20A. Genotypic and phenotypic features of AI1G are diverse and their full spectra remain to be characterized. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize variants in FAM20A in a broad population of patients with AI1G. We identified a Thai female (Pt-1) and a Saudi male (Pt-2) affected with AI1G. Both had hypoplastic enamel, gingival hyperplasia, and intrapulpal calcification. Pt-1 also had rapidly progressive embedding of unerupted teeth, early eruption of permanent teeth, and spontaneous dental infection. Uniquely, Pt-2 had all permanent teeth erupted which was uncommon in AI1G patients. Whole exome sequencing (WES) identified that Pt-1 was heterozygous for FAM20A, c.758A > G (p.Tyr253Cys), inherited from her father. The mutation on maternal allele was not detected by WES. Pt-2 possessed compound heterozygous mutations, c.1248dupG (p.Phe417Valfs*7); c.1081C > T (p.Arg361Cys) in FAM20A. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), cDNA sequencing, and whole genome sequencing successfully identified 7531 bp deletion on Pt-1's maternal allele. This was the largest FAM20A deletion ever found. A review of all 70 patients from 50 independent families with AI1G (including two families in this study) showed that the penetrance of hypoplastic enamel and gingival hyperplasia was complete. Unerupted permanent teeth were found in all 70 patients except Pt-2. Exons 1 and 11 were mutation-prone. Most mutations were frameshift. Certain variants showed founder effect. To conclude, this study reviews and expands phenotypic and genotypic spectra of AI1G. A large deletion missed by WES can be detected by WGS. Hypoplastic enamel, gingival hyperplasia, and unerupted permanent teeth prompt genetic testing of FAM20A. Screening of nephrocalcinosis, early removal of embedded teeth, and monitoring of dental infection are recommended.