Ann Saudi Med 2020 Mar-Apr;40(2):155-158. Epub 2020 Apr 2.
From the Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins, Aramco Medical City, Saudi Arabia.
We report a rare case of IgG4-associated mediastinal fibrosis with complete superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction successfully managed by thrombolysis and stenting in a 33-year-old male. The patient presented with a mediastinal mass lesion with clinical findings of SVC obstruction. Surgical biopsy of the mediastinal mass lesion with histology and immunohistochemistry staining established the diagnosis of IgG4 associated mediastinal fibrosis. The patient was treated with a systemic steroid and rituximab, but despite treatment, SVC obstruction and thromboses persisted, surgical intervention was declined by the thoracic surgeon due to extensive mediastinal fibrosis and an expected poor outcome. Percutaneous SVC angioplasty, intravascular thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator and afterward stent placement was done by the interventional radiology service. This intervention is rare and possibly was lifesaving as it restored complete patency of the SVC. Our case is probably the first with IgG4 mediastinitis and SVC complete obstruction relieved by intravascular thrombolysis and SVC stent placement. It demonstrates that SVC stenting can relieve SVC obstruction in patients with a high risk of surgery either due to medical comorbidities or an expected high surgical risk like bleeding in the mediastinal fibrosis, which in our case of SVC obstruction was due to a nonoperable mediastinal tumor. SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED: None to our knowledge.