Nanobiotechnology 2005 ;1(4):327-335
1Nanoplex Technologies, Inc., 665 Clyde Avenue, 94043 Mountain View, CA.
In this paper we describe a molecular beacon format assay in which encoded nanowire particles are used to achieve multiplexing. We demonstrate this principle with the detection of five viral pathogens; Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis C virus, West Nile Virus, Human Immune Deficiency virus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus. Oligonucleotides are designed complementary to a target sequence of interest containing a 3' universal fluorescence dye. A 5' thiol causes the oligonucleotides to self-assemble onto the metal nanowire. The single-stranded oligonucleotide contains a self-complementary hairpin stem sequence of 10 bases that forces the 3' fluorophore to come into contact with the metallic nanowire surface, thereby quenching the fluorescence. Upon addition of target DNA, there is hybridization with the complementary oligonucleotides. The resulting DNA hybrid is rigid, unfolds the hairpin structure, and causes the fluorophore to be moved away from the surface such that it is no longer quenched. By using differently encoded nanowires, each conjugated with a different oligonucleotide sequence, multiplexed DNA assays are possible using a single fluorophore, from a multiplexed RT-PCR reaction.