Background: Currently, no estimates can be made on the impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on allergy transfer or cure of the disease. By using component-resolved diagnosis, we prospectively investigated 50 donor-recipient pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This allowed calculating the rate of transfer or maintenance of allergen-specific responses in the context of stem cell transplantation. Methods: Allergen-specific IgE and IgG to 156 allergens was measured pretransplantation in 50 donors and recipients and at 6, 12 and 24 months in recipients post-transplantation by allergen microarray. Based on a mixed effects model, we determined risks of transfer of allergen-specific IgE or IgG responses 24 months post-transplantation.Results: After undergoing stem cell transplantation, 94% of allergen-specific IgE responses were lost. Two years post-transplantation, recipients' allergen-specific IgE was significantly linked to the pretransplantation donor or recipient status. The estimated risk to transfer and maintain individual IgE responses to allergens by stem cell transplantation was 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively. Allergen-specific IgG, which served as a surrogate marker of maintaining protective IgG responses, was highly associated with the donor's (31.6%) or the recipient's (28%) pretransplantation response.Conclusion: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation profoundly reduces allergen-specific IgE responses but also comes with a considerable risk to transfer allergen-specific immune responses. These findings facilitate clinical decision-making regarding allergic diseases in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, it provides prospective data to estimate the risk of transmitting allergen-specific responses via hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.