MutT homologue 1 (MTH1) removes N6-methyl-dATP from the dNTP pool.

J Biol Chem 2020 04 6;295(15):4761-4772. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden

MutT homologue 1 (MTH1) removes oxidized nucleotides from the nucleotide pool and thereby prevents their incorporation into the genome and thereby reduces genotoxicity. We previously reported that MTH1 is an efficient catalyst of O6-methyl-dGTP hydrolysis suggesting that MTH1 may also sanitize the nucleotide pool from other methylated nucleotides. We here show that MTH1 efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of N6-methyl-dATP to N6-methyl-dAMP and further report that N6-methylation of dATP drastically increases the MTH1 activity. We also observed MTH1 activity with N6-methyl-ATP, albeit at a lower level. We show that N6-methyl-dATP is incorporated into DNA , as indicated by increased N6-methyl-dA DNA levels in embryos developed from MTH1 knock-out zebrafish eggs microinjected with N6-methyl-dATP compared with noninjected embryos. N6-methyl-dATP activity is present in MTH1 homologues from distantly related vertebrates, suggesting evolutionary conservation and indicating that this activity is important. Of note, N6-methyl-dATP activity is unique to MTH1 among related NUDIX hydrolases. Moreover, we present the structure of N6-methyl-dAMP-bound human MTH1, revealing that the N6-methyl group is accommodated within a hydrophobic active-site subpocket explaining why N6-methyl-dATP is a good MTH1 substrate. N6-methylation of DNA and RNA has been reported to have epigenetic roles and to affect mRNA metabolism. We propose that MTH1 acts in concert with adenosine deaminase-like protein isoform 1 (ADAL1) to prevent incorporation of N6-methyl-(d)ATP into DNA and RNA. This would hinder potential dysregulation of epigenetic control and RNA metabolism via conversion of N6-methyl-(d)ATP to N6-methyl-(d)AMP, followed by ADAL1-catalyzed deamination producing (d)IMP that can enter the nucleotide salvage pathway.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.012636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152754PMC
April 2020

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