Molecules 2020 Jan 24;25(3). Epub 2020 Jan 24.
Innovation Centre in Agritechnology for Advanced Bioprocessing (ICA), University Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia.
Herbal plants are traditionally utilized to treat various illnesses. They contain phytochemicals that can be extracted using conventional methods such as maceration, soxhlet, and boiling, as well as non-conventional methods including ultrasonic, microwave, and others. leaves have been used for the treatment of dengue, fungal, and bacterial infections as well as an ingredient in anti-aging products. Phytochemicals analysis detected the presence of kaempferol, myricetin, carpaine, pseudocarpaine, dehydrocarpaine I and II, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, and anthraquinones glycoside. Conventional preparation by boiling and simple maceration is practical, simple, and safe; however, only polar phytochemicals are extracted. The present study aims to investigate the effects of three different non-conventional extraction techniques (ultrasonic-assisted extraction, reflux, and agitation) on phytochemical constituents, the antioxidant capacity, and wound-healing activities. Among the three techniques, the reflux technique produced the highest extraction yield (17.86%) with the presence of saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, and phenolic metabolites. The reflux technique also produced the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging with an IC value of 0.236 mg/mL followed by ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) (IC: 0.377 mg/mL) and agitation (IC: 0.404 mg/mL). At tested concentrations (3.125 µg/mL to 500 µg/mL), all extracts do not exhibit a cytotoxicity effect on the human skin fibroblast, HSF1184. Interestingly, reflux and UAE were active fibroblast proliferators that support 85% (12.5 µg/mL) and 41% (6.25 µg/mL) better cell growth, respectively. Additionally, during the early 24 h of the scratch assay, the migration rate at 12.5 µg/mL was faster for all extracts with 51.8% (reflux), 49.3% (agitation), and 42.5% (UAE) as compared to control (21.87%). At 48 h, proliferated cells covered 78.7% of the scratch area for reflux extract, 63.1% for UAE, 61% for agitation, and 42.6% for control. Additionally, the collagen synthesis was enhanced for 31.6% and 65% after 24 and 48 h of treatment for reflux. An HPLC-MS/MS-QTOF (quadruple time-of-flight) analysis of reflux identified nine phytochemicals, including carpaine, kaempferol 3-(2G-glucosylrutinoside), kaempferol 3-(2″-rhamnosylgalactoside), 7-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-rhamnosyl-(1->2)-galactoside-7-rhamnoside, luteolin 7-galactosyl-(1->6)-galactoside, orientin 7-O-rhamnoside, 11-hydroperoxy-12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid, palmitic amide, and 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxyphenol. The results suggested that reflux was the best technique as compared to ultrasonic and agitation.