Bioimpacts 2020 2;10(1):37-43. Epub 2019 Nov 2.
Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is known as standard chondrogenic differentiation agent, even though it comes with undesirable side effects such as early hypertrophic maturation, mineralization, and secretion of inflammatory/angiogenic factors. On the other hand, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is found to have a chondrogenic impact on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation, with no considerable side effects. Therefore, we compared chondrogenic impact of TGF-β and PRP on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), to see if PRP could be introduced as an alternative to TGF-β. Differentiation of ADSCs was monitored using a couple of methods including glycosaminoglycan production, expression, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) secretion, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium content assays. Accordingly, the treatment of differentiating cells with 5% (v/v) PRP resulted in higher glycosaminoglycan production, enhanced transcription, and lowered TNFα and VEGF secretion compared to the control and TGF-β groups. Besides, the application of PRP to the media up-regulated and in early and late stages of chondrogenesis, respectively. PRP induces chondrogenesis, as well as TGF-β with lesser inflammatory and hypertrophic side effects.