Microorganisms 2020 Jan 17;8(1). Epub 2020 Jan 17.
Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología (IBT), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Av. Universidad #2001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico.
The shrimp has become the most valuable traded marine product in the world, and its microbiota plays an essential role in its development and overall health status. Massive high-throughput sequencing techniques using several hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene are broadly applied in shrimp microbiota studies. However, it is essential to consider that the use of different hypervariable regions can influence the obtained data and the interpretation of the results. The present study compares the shrimp microbiota structure and composition obtained by three types of amplicons: one spanning both the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions (V3V4), one for the V3 region only (V3), and one for the V4 region only (V4) using the same experimental and bioinformatics protocols. Twenty-four samples from hepatopancreas and intestine were sequenced and evaluated using the GreenGenes and silva reference databases for clustering and taxonomic classification. In general, the V3V4 regions resulted in higher richness and diversity, followed by V3 and V4. All three regions establish an apparent clustering effect that discriminates between the two analyzed organs and describe a higher richness for the intestine and a higher diversity for the hepatopancreas samples. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phyla overall, and Cyanobacteria was more common in the intestine, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more prevalent in hepatopancreas samples. Also, the genus was significantly abundant in the intestine, as well as and in the hepatopancreas suggesting these taxa as markers for their respective organs independently of the sequenced region. The use of a single hypervariable region such as V3 may be a low-cost alternative that enables an adequate description of the shrimp microbiota, allowing for the development of strategies to continually monitor the microbial communities and detect changes that could indicate susceptibility to pathogens under real aquaculture conditions while the use of the full V3V4 regions can contribute to a more in-depth characterization of the microbial composition.