Int Wound J 2020 Apr 15;17(2):491-507. Epub 2020 Jan 15.
Department of Descriptive and Topographic Anatomy, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland.
Unique properties of amniotic membrane make it a promising source for tissue engineering and a clinically useful alternative for patients suffering from chronic wounds including, for example, ulcers, burns, ocular surface damages and wounds occurring in the course of bullous diseases like stevens-johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Its use has many advantages over standard wound care, as it contains pluripotent cells, nutrients, anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Placental tissues can be prepared as a medical component, an advanced therapy medicinal product or a tissue graft. In addition to basic preparation procedures such as washing, rinsing, cutting, drying and sterilisation, there are many optional steps such as perforation, crosslinking and decellularisation. Finally, transplants should be properly stored-in cryopreserved or dehydrated form. In recent years, many studies including basic science and clinical trials have proven the potential to expand the use of amniotic membrane and amnion-derived cells to the fields of orthopaedics, dentistry, surgery, urology, vascular tissue engineering and even oncology. In this review, we discuss the role of placental tissues in skin wound healing and in the treatment of various diseases, with particular emphasis on bullous diseases. We also describe some patented procedures for placental tissue grafts preparation.