Aims: To investigate the acute effects of hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion on the elimination of uremic toxins and inflammatory mediators in patients with end-stage renal disease.Materials And Methods: A total of 37 end-stage renal disease patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis received a single hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion dialysis treatment. The acute effects of one hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion session on uremic toxins and inflammatory mediators were assessed by comparing the pre- and post-hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion concentrations. Results: Hemoglobin and albumin were stable during hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion therapy. The mean reduction ratios of β-microglobulin, p-cresyl sulfate, and indoxyl sulfate were 43.60%, 40.91%, and 43.64%, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor-α also decreased significantly at a mean rate of 28.10%, while the concentrations of interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein remained unchanged after one session of hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion.Conclusion: The hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion system is a new dialysis technique that combines diffusion, convection, and adsorption processes. It allows for extensive solute removal, including protein-bound uremic toxins and some pro-inflammatory cytokines, but does not cause nutrient loss and inflammatory response during the treatment. Although the effect after a single hemodiafiltration with endogenous infusion session is limited, it may be improved by repeated and long-term treatment.