Insights Imaging 2019 Dec 18;10(1):122. Epub 2019 Dec 18.
Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.
The adult diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are typically IDH mutant and slow-growing gliomas having moderately increased cellularity generally without mitosis, necrosis, and microvascular proliferation. Supra-total resection of LGG significantly increases the overall survival by delaying malignant transformation compared with a simple debulking so accurate MR diagnosis is crucial for treatment planning. Data from meta-analysis support the addition of diffusion and perfusion-weighted MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of suspected LGG. Typically, LGG has lower cellularity (ADC), angiogenesis (rCBV), capillary permeability (K), and mitotic activity (Cho/Cr ratio) compared to high-grade glioma. The identification of 2-hydroxyglutarate by MR spectroscopy can reflect the IDH status of the tumor. The initial low ADC, high rCBV, and K values are consistent with the poor prognosis. The gradual increase in intratumoral Cho/Cr ratio and rCBV values are well correlated with tumor progression. Besides MR-based technical artifacts, which are minimized by the voxel-based assessment of data obtained by histogram analysis, the problems derived from the diversity and the analysis of imaging data should be solved by using artificial intelligence techniques. The quantitative multiparametric MR imaging of LGG can either improve the diagnostic accuracy of their differential diagnosis or assess their prognosis.