Background: Information concerning the cancer issue in Chinese patients on hemodialysis (HD) was lacking. Thus, we examined data from our dialysis registry to investigate the incidence of cancer, identify the possible factors, and explore outcomes after cancer diagnosis in patients on chronic HD.Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 639 new-onset end-stage renal disease patients who started HD therapy during the period from July 1999 to December 2017 was retrieved from the database in our dialysis center. All eligible patients were followed up until renal transplantation, death, or end of study (March 31, 2019). The definition of a newly diagnosed cancer was that diagnosed 6 months after HD therapy initiation.Results: Within a median follow-up period of 5.61 years, 58 patients (9.08%) have been diagnosed with cancer with the incidence of 1,494 per 105 person-years. The mean duration from HD initiation to cancer diagnosis was 5.22 ± 3.55 years. Digestive cancer (32.76%) was the most common followed by urologic cancer (18.97%) and lung cancer (15.52%). Advanced age at starting HD therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04) and erythropoietin dosage ≥20,000 U/week (HR 1.95) were independent predictors for cancer occurrence. Of the 256 deaths during the follow-up period, 29 cases (11.33%) were attributed to cancer, with the mortality rate of 717 per 105 person-years. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year cumulative survival rates after cancer diagnosis were 58.73, 34.64, and 20.41%, respectively. A total of 32 patients (55.17%) did not receive any anti-cancer therapy, and the mortality in those patients was significantly increased as compared to patients who received anti-cancer therapy.Conclusion: Cancer is common in HD patients due to the improved survival, and it has a negative effect on patient prognosis. Many patients have failed to receive optimal anti-cancer therapy, which calls for effective communication and cooperation among patients, dialysis unit, and oncology teams.