J Pediatr Surg 2019 Nov 29. Epub 2019 Nov 29.
Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Emerson Hall 545 Barnhill Drive, Room 125, Indianapolis, IN 46202; Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, 705 Riley Hospital Dr. RI 2500, Indianapolis, IN 46202. Electronic address:
Background: Surgeon-specific variations in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannulation technique are not well characterized. Advances in technology have led to changing techniques with no formal consensus statement for reference.
Methods: A survey was e-mailed to 1301 members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA). Categorical data was compared with Chi-squared and Kendall's tau-β tests, and multiple column comparisons were performed with the Bonferroni correction.
Results: Response rate was 19%, with 248 pediatric general surgeons responding to the survey. 89.4% of respondents stated that cannulation was typically performed in the ICU. Venoarterial (VA) ECMO cannulation was more often performed open (88.6%) than venovenous (VV) ECMO (42.2%). Surgeons cannulate for VA ECMO and VV ECMO without imaging guidance 44% and 21.5% of the time, respectively. There was no difference in estimated rate of cannula repositioning by cannulation strategy. For venous and arterial cannulation in VA ECMO, surgeons were more likely to use the femoral as opposed to the neck when children were older than 13 years and weighed more than 35 kg regardless of the presence or absence of preexisting femoral arterial or venous access.
Conclusion: Practice patterns for ECMO cannulation are variable among pediatric surgeons. Standardization could reduce the occurrence of unsafe practices and potentially decrease complications and improve patient outcomes.
Level Of Evidence: Level IV.