Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows exploration of the mode of action of neuroactive substances in the human brain, and allows evaluation of neuronal networks, which might be involved in the action of nicotine. The aim of the present study was to explore motor cortex excitability in chronic smokers and non-smokers using TMS.Methods: The study included 50 healthy subjects, of whom 25 were chronic smokers and 25 were age- and sex-matched non-smokers. Number of cigarettes per day and duration of smoking in years were documented. Serum level of cotinine was measured. Resting and active motor threshold (RMT, AMT) and input-output curves (I/O) were performed to assess corticospinal excitability. The duration of the contralateral silent period (cSP) at different ranges of stimulation intensities and ipsilateral silent period (iSP) were used as measures of inhibition.Results: There were no significant differences either in RMT or AMT between groups. I/O curve showed a significant intensity×group interaction (P=0.008). This was attributable to significantly higher amplitudes of MEP among smokers than non-smokers especially at 130, 140 and 150% of RMT (P=0.0001 and P=0.03 and 0.02 respectively). The mean duration of the cSP at different intensities and iSP duration were similar in both groups. Nicotine level and smoking index were correlated respectively with rMT and iSP (P=0.03 and 0.01).Conclusion: The present results confirm previous findings by Grundey et al. (2013) that chronic nicotine consumption is characterized by hyperexcitability of corticospinal output. We speculate that it is a secondary adaptation to long-term nicotine use with high inter-individual variance.