Clin Oral Investig 2020 Aug 23;24(8):2635-2643. Epub 2019 Nov 23.
Department of Orthodontics, UOC Maxillofacial and Dental Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
Objectives: The objectives of the study are to analyze volumetric differences of condylar volumes in patients with unilateral and bilateral JIA and to compare results with control condylar volumes.
Materials And Methods: Forty-six CBCT images were analyzed for all patients affected by JIA, 37 females and 9 males (mean age 10.8 ± 4.2) with TMJ involvement (19 unilaterally, mean age 10.9 ± 4.5; 27 bilaterally, mean age 10.7 ± 4.5), and 25 CBCT of subjects without diagnosis of JIA were selected as controls (mean age 10.8 ± 4.2 years). In the case of unilateral JIA, condylar volumes and ramus lengths were compared with healthy condyle and with the compromised one. In the case of bilateral JIA, condyle volume and ramus lengths were compared with healthy one. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess whether the data was normally distributed. Paired t test was applied to compare affected and non-affected condyle in the same patients (P < 0.05). Independent t test was used to evaluate whether the difference between the groups were comparable or significantly different (P < 0.05).
Results: For the unilateral JIA group, significant differences comparing affected and non-affected condyles were found. A statistically significant reduction of the volume of the head, neck, and ramus was found in the affected side (P < 0.01). For the bilateral JIA group, statistically significant differences have been found considering the condylar head and neck, the whole condylar volume, and the ramus length compared with the control group (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Subjects with unilateral JIA have condyles volumetrically smaller than those of the unaffected side and those found in healthy patients. A considerable decrease of the volume of all the anatomical structures considered in the patients with bilateral JIA was found compared with control group.
Clinical Relevance: The study presents the effects of JIA on different anatomical structures highlighting their dimensional changes, whose sequelae are irreversible if not diagnosed and treated early.