Adv Clin Exp Med 2019 Nov;28(11):1571-1575
Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
Despite great advances in medicine, the proper treatment of arterial hypertension (AH), diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge. Untreated, undiagnosed AH or DM may lead to the development of CKD and consequently to the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Adropin and irisin are newly discovered proteins which may play a role in the development and progression of the chronic diseases mentioned above. Endothelium dysfunction could be a bonding point. The following review paper focuses on adropin and irisin concentrations and their correlations in AH, DM and CKD. Lower adropin concentrations have been measured in patients with primary AH when compared to healthy volunteers. Irisin has reduced blood pressure on nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathways in experimental studies; a negative correlation between irisin and blood pressure values has also been observed in preeclamptic women. Irisin also plays a role in insulin sensitivity and metabolic disorders. Lower irisin levels have been observed in patients with DM type 2 in comparison to a nondiabetic control group. It is also lower in the serum of pregnant women with gestational DM. A negative correlation between irisin and estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) has also been noted. Adropin and irisin are newly described myokines measured in human plasma in healthy and disease status. Their exact function has not been specified yet and requires further studies.