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Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions Followed by Solid Phase Extraction Fractionation from Leaves for Antiproliferative Effect on Prostate Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2019 Nov 18;24(22). Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Primarily, optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of was evaluated and verified using a central composite design (CCD) based on three factors including extraction time (minutes), ultrasound amplitude (A), and solvent concentration (%). The response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to develop an extraction method with maximum yield and high rosmarinic acid content. The optimal UAE conditions were as follows: extraction time 21 min, ultrasound amplitudes 62 A, and solvent composition 70% ethanol in water. The crude extract was further fractionated using solid-phase extraction (SPE), where six sequential fractions that varied in polarity (0-100% Acetonitrile in water) were obtained. Next, the six fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. This study found that Fraction 2 (F2) contained the highest rosmarinic acid content and showed the strongest antioxidant activity. Additionally, F2 showed an anti-proliferative effect against prostate cancer (DU145) with no harmful effect on normal cells.

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