Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Mar 13;29:101600. Epub 2019 Nov 13.
Department of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:
We have recently reported the synthesis and characterization of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle and demonstrated such a nanoparticle (Au@FeO NP) was able to significantly enhance the lethal effects of photo-thermo-radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms behind such an enhancement by investigating the changes induced in cancer cell viability, proliferation, and morphology as well as monitoring the alteration of some genes which play important role in the process of cell death. Using MTT assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the KB cells viability and morphology were assessed after treating with various combinations of NPs, photothermal therapy (PTT), and radiotherapy (RT). Clonogenic assay was used to assess the proliferation ability of treated KB cells. Nanoparticle internalization into the cells was investigated by TEM and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). During the treatment procedures, temperature changes were monitored using an IR-camera. Furthermore, the changes occurred in Bax, BCL2 and HSP70 genes expression level were measured using real-time PCR. The results showed that combination of NP, PTT, and RT caused more cell death compared to PTT or RT alone. Following such a combination therapy, massive cell injury was detected. We also observed an extensive increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio and HSP70 expression for the KB cells treated by combination therapy procedure. Our results showed that massive cell injury and apoptosis induction are the main reasons of extensive cell death observed in cancer cells when a nanoparticle assisted photo-thermo-radiotherapy procedure is applied.