SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubmedBookArticle] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [BookDocument] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PMID] => 33630482 [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => NBK567880 ) [Book] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Publisher] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublisherName] => National Library of Medicine (US) [PublisherLocation] => Bethesda (MD) ) [BookTitle] => Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2006 ) [BeginningDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2006 ) [Medium] => Internet ) [ArticleTitle] => Etesevimab [Language] => eng [PublicationType] => Review [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Etesevimab is a monoclonal antibody given together with bamlanivimab. Both are directed against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. No information is available on the clinical use of etesevimab during breastfeeding. Because etesevimab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 146,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, etesevimab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Etesevimab is a human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody. Holder pasteurization (62.5 degrees C for 30 minutes) decreases the concentration of endogenous immunoglobulin G by up to 79%.[1,2] A study of 67 colostrum samples that underwent Holder pasteurization found that IgG amounts decreased by 34 to 40%. Specific IgG subclasses decreased by different amounts, with IgG1 activity decreasing by about 37%.[3] None of the studies measured IgG activity. ) [Sections] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Section] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [SectionTitle] => Drug Levels and Effects ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [SectionTitle] => Substance Identification ) ) ) [KeywordList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Keyword] => Array ( [0] => Etesevimab [1] => LYCoV016 [2] => anti-Sars-cov-2 antibody JS016 [3] => CB6 [4] => LY-3832479 [5] => LY-COV016 [6] => LY3832479 [7] => NP005 [8] => UNII-N7Q9NLF11I [9] => WHO 11873 ) ) ) [PubmedBookData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 26 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 1 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 26 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 1 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 26 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 1 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => 33630482 ) ) ) [PubmedArticle] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => Publisher [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 33631864 [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 02 [Day] => 25 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Print ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1445-5994 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 51 [Issue] => 2 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2021 [Month] => Feb ) ) [Title] => Internal medicine journal [ISOAbbreviation] => Intern Med J ) [ArticleTitle] => Outcomes for the first wave of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in the South Australian context: a retrospective audit. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 189-198 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1111/imj.15106 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Array ( [0] => The first case of corona virus disease (COVID-19) was detected in South Australia on 1 February 2020. The Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) is the state's designated quarantine hospital. [1] => To determine the characteristics, outcomes and predictors of outcomes for hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) within the RAH. [2] => We performed a retrospective audit of 103 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were discharged from the RAH between 14 February and 21 May 2020. We collected demographic, clinical and laboratory data through an audit of electronic medical records. The main outcome measures were: (i) the need for oxygen supplementation; (ii) need for intensive care unit (ICU) care; and (iii) death in hospital. [3] => The median age of patients was 60 years (range 19-85). A total of 55 (53%) patients was male. All patients were independent at baseline; 37 (36%) patients suffered from hypertension. Cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and diabetes were present in fewer than 19 (18%) patients. Obesity was present in 24 (23%) patients; 39 (38%) patients required supplemental oxygen, 18 (17%) required ICU care and 4 (4%) patients died. Older patients were significantly more at risk of oxygen requirement (median 68 vs 57.5 years, P < 0.01), ICU admission (median 66.5 vs 60 years, P = 0.04) and death (median 74.5 vs 60 years, P = 0.02). We did not find a statistically significant association between gender, body mass index and poor outcomes. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the only parameter at admission associated with oxygen requirement, ICU care and death. Peak LDH, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio were significantly associated with oxygen requirement, ICU admission and death (P < 0.05 for all of the above laboratory markers). [4] => Although our sample size was small, we found that certain comorbidities and laboratory values were associated with poor outcomes. This occurred in a setting where care was not influenced by limited hospital and intensive care beds. ) [CopyrightInformation] => © 2021 Royal Australasian College of Physicians. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Toh [ForeName] => Dylan J-W [Initials] => DJ [Identifier] => https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5487-9992 [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => General Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Rowe [ForeName] => Emily [Initials] => E [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Infectious Diseases, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Nelson [ForeName] => Renjy [Initials] => R [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Infectious Diseases, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => O'Connell [ForeName] => Alice [Initials] => A [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => General Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Lim [ForeName] => Ken [Initials] => K [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => General Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Fielke [ForeName] => Lauren [Initials] => L [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => General Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => He [ForeName] => Jiacheng [Initials] => J [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => General Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Faunt [ForeName] => Jeffrey [Initials] => J [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => General Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. ) ) ) ) [Language] => eng [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Journal Article ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => Australia [MedlineTA] => Intern Med J [NlmUniqueID] => 101092952 [ISSNLinking] => 1444-0903 ) [CitationSubset] => IM [KeywordList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Owner] => NOTNLM ) [Keyword] => Array ( [0] => Australia [1] => coronavirus infection [2] => infectious disease [3] => pandemic [4] => public health ) ) ) [PubmedData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => received ) [Year] => 2020 [Month] => 07 [Day] => 06 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => revised ) [Year] => 2020 [Month] => 09 [Day] => 21 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => accepted ) [Year] => 2020 [Month] => 09 [Day] => 21 ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 25 [Hour] => 20 [Minute] => 19 ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 26 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 26 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => Array ( [0] => 33631864 [1] => 10.1111/imj.15106 ) ) [ReferenceList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Title] => References [Reference] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Johns Hopkins University & Medicine. Coronavirus Resource Centre. 2020 [cited 2020 May 21]. Available from URL: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2016 Census Quickstats. 2016 [cited 2020 Apr 22]. Available from URL: https://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/quickstat/4?opendocument ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Government of South Australia. Covid-19 Dashboard and Daily update. 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 22]. Available from URL: https://www.covid-19.sa.gov.au/home/dashboard ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2020; 395: 1054-62. ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Bhatraju P, Ghassemieh B, Nichols M, Kim R, Jerome KR, Nalla AK et al. Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the Seattle region - case series. N Engl J Med 2020; 382: 2012-22. ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Richardson S, Hirsch J, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson KW et al. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA 2020; 323: 2052-9. ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC). ICNARC report on COVID-19 in critical care, April 24 2020. Napier House, 24 High Holborn, London WC1V 6AZ, London, 2020. ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. Suppl. 2013; 3: 5-14. ) [8] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Wang D, Hu B, Hu C. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 2020; 323: 1061-9. ) [9] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Health Roundtable. 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 11]. Available from URL: https://www.healthroundtable.org/ ) [10] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Li M, Wang M, Chen B, Zhang H, Deng A. Association of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with severity of risk of death in patients with hypertension hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol 2020; 5: 825-30. ) [11] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Bean D, Kraljevic Z, Searle T, Bendayan R, Pickles A, Folarin A et al. Treatment with ACE-inhibitors is associated with less severe SARS-Covid-19 infection in a multi-site UK acute hospital trust. Eur J Heart Fail 2020; 22: 967-974. ) [12] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => De Simone G. Position statement of the ESC Council on hypertension on ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. [cited 2020 May 21]. Available from URL: https://www.escardio.org/Councils/Council-on-Hypertension-(CHT)/News/position-statement-of-the-esc-council-on-hypertension-on-ace-inhibitors-and-ang ) [13] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Lagunas-Rangel F. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte to C reactive protein ratio in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Virology 2020; 92: 1733-4. ) [14] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Yang A, Liu J, Tao W, Li H. The diagnostic and predictive role of NLR, d-NLR and PLR in COVID-19 patients. Int Immunopharmacol 2020; 84: 106504. ) [15] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Wang L. C-reactive protein levels in the early stage of COVID-19. Med Mal Infect 2020; 50: 332-4. ) ) ) ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => Publisher [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 33631862 [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 02 [Day] => 25 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Print ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1445-5994 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 51 [Issue] => 2 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2021 [Month] => Feb ) ) [Title] => Internal medicine journal [ISOAbbreviation] => Intern Med J ) [ArticleTitle] => Immunosuppression as a risk factor for COVID-19: a meta-analysis. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 199-205 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1111/imj.15142 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Array ( [0] => While immunosuppression poses a theoretical increase in the risk of COVID-19, the nature of this relationship is yet to be ascertained. [1] => To determine whether immunosuppressed patients are at higher risk of COVID-19 to help inform the management of patients receiving immunosuppressant therapies during the pandemic. [2] => We performed a random-effects meta-analysis of data from studies that reported on the prevalence of immunosuppression among patient cohorts with COVID-19. [3] => Sixty full-text publications were identified. In total, six individual studies were included in the final analysis, contributing a total of 10 049 patients with COVID-19 disease. The prevalence of immunosuppressed patients among the study cohorts with COVID-19 ranged from 0.126% to 1.357%. In the pooled cohort a total of 64/10 049 (0.637%) patients with COVID-19 disease was immunosuppressed. Observed to expected ratios were used to compare the prevalence of immunosuppression in cohorts with confirmed COVID-19 disease to the background prevalence of immunosuppression in the general community. The observed to expected ratio of immunosuppression among patients with COVID-19 illness, relative to the general community, was 0.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.27). [4] => Compared to the general population, immunosuppressed patients were not at significantly increased risk of COVID-19 infection. This finding provides support for current expert consensus statements, which have recommended the continuation of immunosuppressant therapy in the absence of COVID-19. ) [CopyrightInformation] => © 2021 Royal Australasian College of Physicians. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Tassone [ForeName] => Daniel [Initials] => D [Identifier] => https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1882-8135 [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Thompson [ForeName] => Alexander [Initials] => A [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ) ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Connell [ForeName] => William [Initials] => W [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ) ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Lee [ForeName] => Tanya [Initials] => T [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ) ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Ungaro [ForeName] => Ryan [Initials] => R [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Dr Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, The Susan and Leonard Feinstein Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States. ) ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => An [ForeName] => Ping [Initials] => P [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Gastroenterology, Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Digestive System Disease, Hubei Provincial Clinical Research Center for Digestive Disease Minimally Invasive Incision, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. ) ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Ding [ForeName] => Yijuan [Initials] => Y [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Gastroenterology, Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Digestive System Disease, Hubei Provincial Clinical Research Center for Digestive Disease Minimally Invasive Incision, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. ) ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Ding [ForeName] => Nik S [Initials] => NS [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ) ) ) ) [Language] => eng [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Journal Article ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => Australia [MedlineTA] => Intern Med J [NlmUniqueID] => 101092952 [ISSNLinking] => 1444-0903 ) [CitationSubset] => IM [KeywordList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Owner] => NOTNLM ) [Keyword] => Array ( [0] => COVID-19 [1] => immunocompromised host [2] => immunosuppression [3] => infection [4] => risk ) ) ) [PubmedData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => received ) [Year] => 2020 [Month] => 08 [Day] => 24 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => revised ) [Year] => 2020 [Month] => 11 [Day] => 02 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => accepted ) [Year] => 2020 [Month] => 11 [Day] => 24 ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 25 [Hour] => 20 [Minute] => 19 ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 26 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2021 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 26 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => Array ( [0] => 33631862 [1] => 10.1111/imj.15142 ) ) [ReferenceList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Title] => References [Reference] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Citation] => Wu Z, McGoogan JM. 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