Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2019 Oct 18;47(5):313-320. Epub 2019 Oct 18.
Institut für Tierpathologie, Freie Universität Berlin.
Objective: In the literature, the BRAF mutation is reported to have been identified in 80 % of the examined canine prostate carcinomas (PCa). The objectives of this study were to test for the BRAF mutation in canine PCa in our cohort of canine patients, to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the test for this mutation, as well as to identify the association between the presence of the BRAF mutation and the histologic picture of PCa. Moreover, the method was to be established in cytology samples.
Material And Methods: Biopsy samples (n = 70) and cytologic slides (n = 17) of 87 dogs with prostatic diseases were selected. Prostatic diseases were classified according to the literature as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, n = 22), prostatitis (n = 14), squamous cell metaplasia of the prostate (PM, n = 2), atrophy following castration (n = 3) und PCa (n = 46; histologic diagnosis n = 35, cytologic diagnosis n = 11). Additionally, the Gleason score was determined for each PCa. DNA isolation was performed using commercially available kits. Exon 15 was examined using the TaqMan SNP assay. The specificity and sensitivity of the test were calculated.
Results: A Gleason score of 6 and 7 was shown in 1 PCa each, in 33 cases the score ranged between 8 and 10. Sufficient amount of good-quality DNA was isolated from all samples. 28/46 PCa were tested positive for the BRAF mutation (sensitivity 61 %). The BRAF mutation was not evident in any of the dogs with BPH, prostatitis, PM or atrophy (specificity 100 %). PCa positive for the BRAF mutation exhibited a significantly higher Gleason score (p = 0.002) in comparison to PCa without this mutation.
Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: BRAF mutation analysis is a highly specific method and may aid in confirming the diagnosis of PCa in histologically and cytologically questionable cases. PCa positive for BRAF mutation exhibited more criteria of malignancy than PCa without this mutation. The clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic relevance of these findings needs to be evaluated by further studies.