Front Physiol 2019 24;10:1250. Epub 2019 Sep 24.
Division of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.
There are currently no techniques to accurately study dynamic equilibrium of blood flow within separate regions (compartments) of a large brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) nidus. A greater understanding of this AVM compartmentalization, even if theoretical, would be useful for optimal planning of endovascular and multimodal AVM therapies. We aimed to develop a biomathematical AVM model for theoretical investigations of intranidal regions of increased mean intravascular pressure (P) and flow representing hemodynamic compartments, upon simulated AVM superselective angiography (SSA). We constructed an AVM model as a theoretical electrical circuit containing four arterial feeders (AF1-AF4) and a three-dimensional nidus of 97 interconnected plexiform and fistulous components. We simulated SSA by increases in P in each AF (with and without occlusion of all other AFs), and then used network analysis to establish resulting increases in P and flow within each nidus vessel. We analyzed shifts in hemodynamic compartments consequent to increasing AF injection pressures. SSA simulated by increases of 10 mm Hg in AF1, AF2, AF3, or AF4 resulted in dissipation of P over 38, 66, 76, or 20% of the nidus, respectively, rising slightly with simultaneous occlusion of other AFs. We qualitatively analyzed shifting intranidal compartments consequent to varying injection pressures by mapping the hemodynamic changes onto the nidus network. Differences in extent of nidus filling upon SSA injections provide theoretical evidence that hemodynamic and angioarchitectural features help establish AVM nidus compartmentalization. This model based on a theoretical AVM will serve as a useful computational tool for further investigations of AVM embolotherapy strategies.